AP Physics II Objectives

**Kinematics**

**1) Define kinematics and state why it must always have
a frame of reference.**

**2) Calculate average speed & solve speed problems.**

**3) State the difference between distance and displacement.**

**4) State the difference between speed and velocity.**

**5) Calculate average velocities and accelerations.**

**6) Calculate instantaneous velocities and accelerations.**

**7) State the meaning of the sign on a vector.**

**8) By looking at the direction of the velocity and acceleration
vectors, state whether an object is slowing down or speeding up.**

**9) Describe the relationships among the a vs t, v vs
t, and x vs t curves**

**10) Solve constant acceleration problems in one dimension.**

**Projectile Motion**

**11) State the acceleration in the x and y directions
for projectile motion.**

**12) State the condition of velocity in both the x and
y directions.**

**13) State the relationship of the velocity & acceleration
vectors in the x direction to those in the y direction.**

**14) Solve projectile motion problems**

**Gravity**

**15) Define the term force field (FF).**

- Describe how a gravity FF is modeled at the surface of a planet
- Describe how a gravity FF is modeled at a distance from a planet
- Name two other kinds of force fields.

**16) Solve gravity force problems using the universal
gravity equation.**

- Determine relative forces on 2 dissimilar sized objects.
- Determine the effects of changes in distance and mass on the attraction force between 2 objects.

**17) Calculate "g" from the universal gravity
equation.**

- Determine the effects on "g" of changing a planet's mass.
- Determine the effects on "g" of changing a planet's diameter.

**18) State the only situation where "g" can
be considered an acceleration.**

- Free fall (only the force of gravity acts on the object)

**Dynamics**

**19) Draw free body diagrams.**

- Shows only outside forces acting on object
- Does not show any forces object creates on outside world

**20) Solve elevator problems.**

**Mechanical Energy**

**21) Define work.**

- Mechanical energy transfer
- Requires motion
- Calculated with dot product
- Scalar
- Negative work decreases KE

**22) Solve problems using CONSERVATION OF MASS/ENERGY.**

**23) Calculate gravitational PE.**

**24) Calculate escape velocity for Earth.**

**Circular Motion**

**25) Given the radius of a circle and the tangential
velocity state the magnitude and direction of the centripetal force and
acceleration.**

**26) State the angle between the centripetal force and
tangential velocity vectors. **

**27) Solve circular orbit problems.**

**28) State the amount of work done by a centripetal force.**

**1) Describe the nature of charge.**

- Like repel, opposites attract
- Freely moves in conductors, not free in insulators
- Conserved
- Quantized
- Analogous to mass in many equations

**2) Calculate electrostatic forces using Coulomb's law.**

- One dimension
- 2 Dimension

**3) For a hydrogen atom, calculate the ratio of electric
to gravitational attraction forces.**

**4) Explain the difference in charging an object by induction
and charging it by conduction.**

**Homework: prob 1, 7, 9, 11 p.674-5 Serway**

**5) State the general convention for the type of charge
used in defining electrical phenomena.**

**6) Define electric field and state how its equation
is analogous to F = ma.**

- Map of force on a + test charge
- E-field is a vector
- F = q E

**7) Draw the electric field lines around point charges.**

**8) State the meaning of the arrows and the spacing between
lines in an electric field diagram.**

**9) Use Coulomb's law to calculate the electric field
around a point charge. **

**10) Calculate the electric field due to a **

- thin concentric charged ring
- concentric charged disk
- infinitely large flat surface

**Homework: prob 17, 19, 23, 41, 43 p.675-6 Serway**

**11) State the value of the e-field and force on a charged
particle placed at any location above an infinitely large flat surface with
a uniform charge.**

**12) Solve kinematic problems for a charged particle
in a uniform e-field.**

**13) Solve projectile motion problems for a charged particle
in a uniform e-field.**

**14) Solve mechanical energy problems for a charged particle
in a uniform e-field.**

**Homework: prob 37, 45, 51, 53**

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**TEST: FRI Sept 22, 2000 AD**

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**1) Describe 3 ways to characterize a "solid" object.**

- Volume
- Surface area
- Cross Sectional area

**2) Define scale up factor.**

**3) Develop a general scale up relationships for the 3 characteristics
of solid objects.**

**4) Describe the key variable in an animal's weight and tell why it
is not density.**

- Animals are mostly water

**5) State the key factor in a warm blooded animal's heat loss.**

**6) Describe the relationship between heat loss and food intake.**

**7) Describe the key factors in respiration.**

- The lungs have a fractal type design to maximize surface area

**8) State the relationship between the compressive strength of legs
and the key shape factor.**

**9) State why animals can not be scaled up and down by large factors.**

- Strength of legs
- Heat loss
- Food intake
- Respiration

**10) Analyze an animal's form using a knowledge of scale up factors.**

- Mass/weight
- Surface area
- Cross section of leg

**11) Be as one with the deeper meaning of pressure.**

**12) Solve problems with Pascal's Law.**

**13) Be as one with the deeper meaning of density.**

**14) Solve problems by calculating pressures given the height of a
liquid column.**

**15) Correctly use the terms streamline, laminar flow, and turbulent
flow.**

**16) Use the Bernoulli equation to solve problems.**

Parameter |
Scale Up | |

Volume | Factor ^3 | |

Mass | Factor ^3 | |

Weight | Factor ^3 | |

Strength of Legs | Factor ^2 | |

Surface Area | Factor ^2 | |

Heat Loss/ Unit of Volume | 1/Factor | |

Food Intake/ Unit of Volume | 1/Factor |

**Practice Questions**

1) A mouse's legs are ten times stronger than needed for standing. What is the maximum amount the mouse could be scaled up and still stand?

2) A shrew eats twice its body weight in food each day. What % of its body weight would it need to eat if scaled up by a factor of 1000?

3) A 98 lb boy grows 10% taller in one year. What is the boy's new weight (assume no change in proportions)?

4) A 5 foot tall 120 lb woman is shrunk by an extra terrestrial using a special ray gun. Her new height is 1 foot. What is her new weight? Will it be easier or harder for her to stay warm. Explain using numbers.

5) What is the difference in blood pressure in mm of Hg of a giraffe 's head vs its feet assuming it is 3 meters tall.

6) If an artery is severed by how much will the blood loss increase if the blood pressure is doubled?

**1) Define electric flux.**

- A is considered a vector whose direction is normal to the surface.
- Dot product between E-field and surface
- Flux = E A cos(theta)

**2) State the relationship between electric flux through a closed surface
and the enclosed charge.**

Homework: Questions 1-7 p.699; Problems 1, 3, 7 p. 700

**3) Solve for the electric flux created by a point charge through an
infinitely large plane.**

**4) Solve for the electric flux created by a point charge next to finite
sized plane.**

**5) Using Gauss's law derive the E-field around a point charge.**

**6) Derive an expression for the electric field inside and outside
a charged "fuzzy" sphere.**

**5) State the electric field inside a conductor in electrostatic equilibrium.**

**7) Derive an expression for the E-field inside and outside a charged
hollow sphere.**

**8) Derive an expressions for the E-field inside and outside both very
long fuzzy cylinders and conductive cylinders.**

Homework: Problems 11, 15, 27 p. 700

**7) Be as one with the info in table 24.1 p. 697.**

**8) Be as one with the four magic box points on pages 693, 694.**

**9) Derive an expressions for the E-field inside and outside both fuzzy
and conductive concentric spheres.**

**10) Derive an expressions for the E-field inside and outside both
fuzzy and conductive concentric cylinders.**

Homework: Problems 31, 39, 51 p. 700

1) Describe the nature of the following terms:

- voltage
- current
- resistance

2) Calculate resistance given length, resistivity, and crossectional area.

3) Use Ohm's law to analyse simple circuits with a resistor and DC power source.

3) Use Ohm's law and the relationship power = V * I to derive two additional power equations.

4) Solve for the heat loss in a current carrying piece of wire.

5) Use the 3 power equations and Ohm's law to analyse various types of simple circuits with a resistor and DC power source.

6) Correctly describe the current, power, and voltage conditions for resistance series circuits.

- current = max
- power = max
- voltage = same for all resistance elements

7) Correctly describe the current, power, and voltage conditions for parallel resistance circuits.

- current = min
- power = min
- current = same for all resistance elements

8) Solve for voltage, current and power in pure series or parallel resistance circuits.

**Homework:** Questions (page 790-791) 2-9, 17, 18, 20; Prob. (page
790-791)3, 15, 21, 25, 43, 53

1) State whether electric potential is a vector or scalar and give its units.

2) Write the generic electric potential difference equation.

- equation 25.3 (page 708)

3) Calculate potential differences by moving a charge to different locations in a uniform electric field.

4) Calculate the electric potential due to a point charge.

5) Calculate the electric potential from more than one point charges.

6) Relate the electric field to electric potential mathematically and conceptually.

7) Given electric field lines sketch electric potential lines.

Homework: p.731: 1, 3, 11,12, 33

8) Draw analogies between topographical maps and electric potential and field lines.

- Direction and speed of water flow when it rains.
- Elevation

Homework: page 733-738; 27, 45, 55(hint: charge will floe until voltages are equal), 76, 80, 57

**9) Derive an expression for the electric potential of a uniformly
charged disc.**

**10) Derive an expression for the electric potential of a uniformly
charged infinitely large flat plain.**

**11) Derive an expression for the electric potential inside and outside
a charged "fuzzy" sphere.**

**12) Derive an expression for the potential inside and outside a charged
hollow sphere.**

**13) Derive an expressions for the potential inside and outside both
very long fuzzy cylinders and conductive cylinders.**

**14) Derive an expressions for the potential inside and outside both
fuzzy and conductive concentric spheres.**

**15) Derive an expressions for the potential inside and outside both
fuzzy and conductive concentric cylinders.**

**16) Be as one with table 25.1 on page 729.**

Homework: page 733-738; 27, 45, 55(hint: charge will floe until voltages are equal), 76, 80, 57

1) Calculate the total resistance of circuits containing a mixture of parallel and series resistors.

2) Analyze DC resistance circuits using Ohm's and Kirchoff's laws.

Homework: 19, 31, 33 p. 822 -824

Big Quiz : Jan 13, 2000

1) Draw the magnetic field lines on a bar magnet.

2) Explain what the magnetic field lines indicate.

3) State an important difference between magnetic field lines and electric field lines.

4) Calculate the magnitude of the force on a moving charge given its velocity and the strength of the magnetic field.

5) Using the right hand thumb rule state the direction of the force.

6) Give the relationship of teslas to gausses.

7) Calculate the force on a current carrying wire in a B-field.

8) Explain why the net force on a current carrying loop in a B-field is zero.

9) Calculate the torque and direction of rotation on a current carrying loop of wire in a B-field.

10) Determine the motion of a charged particle traveling at constant velocity in a magnetic field. State the work done by the B-field.

11) Solve problems with charged particles moving in both magnetic and electric fields.

Homework 5, 6, 13, 15, page 856

12) Design velocity selectors for charged particles.

13) Describe the hall effect.

14) Describe the effects of moving a conductor in a magnetic field.

Homework 17, 21, 25, 29, page 857-8

1) Describe the magnetic field around a long thin current carrying wire.

2) Calculate the magnetic field around a long thin current carrying wire.

3) Describe and calculate the forces on two parallel long thin current carrying wires.

4) Calculate the magnetic field along an axial line through the center of a loop of current carrying wire.

5) Explain the Biot Savot law.

6) Explain Ampere's law.

7) Apply all three right hand thumb rules.

Homework 7, 29, Lab Report 2/9/99

1) Calculate the B- Field inside a solenoid p. 876.

2) Calculate the B- Field inside a toroid p.873.

Prob 23, 25 p.895

3) State and apply Faraday's Law of Induction.

prob 1, 5 p.927

4) State the direction of current in a loop of wire passing through a magnetic field.

prob 49 p.933

5) Solve motional EMF problems.

- Rotating bar
- Sliding bar
- Rotating loop
- Sliding loop

6) Use Lenz's Law to calculate forces in motional EMF problems.

prob 23, 25, 27 p. 929

7) Describe the electric field from an EMF induced by by a magnetic field and state its general form.

8) Calculate the electric field for a circular loop.

9) Be as one with the 4 Maxwell equations.

- 1) Define capacitance mathematically (p. 743).

- C = Q/V

- 2) Calculate capacitance for a parallel plate capacitor (p. 743).

- C = k * eo * A/d

- 3) Calculate the energy stored in a capacitor.

- U = 1/2 *C*V^2

4) Calculate and describe the E-field in a capacitor.

5) Solve capacitor circuit problems.

- 6) Solve problems in which dielectric material is inserted or removed (p.751).

- Battery attached: voltage = constant, charge = variable
- Detached from Battery: voltage = constant, charge = variable

Homework: Questions 1-10, p. 762 prob 11, 15, 29, 33, 73 p764-769

1) For a charging RC circuit (p.808) Calculate the following:

- charge vs time
- current vs time
- time constant

2) For a discharging RC circuit (p.808) Calculate the following:

- current vs time
- voltage vs time
- time constant

3) Solve RC circuit problems.

Homework p. 824 43, 44, 45

- 4) State how a capacitor behaves at time = 0 and infinity.
- 5) State how an inductor behaves at time = 0 and infinity.
- 6) For an LR circuit (p.944) Calculate the following:

- current vs time
- voltage vs time
- time constant

Homework 17, 19, 21

- 7) Write an energy balance equation for an LC circuit.
- 8) Calculate the frequency of an LC circuit.
- 9) Draw an analogy between an LC circuit and a spring and mass system.
- 10) Draw an analogy between an RLC circuit and a spring and mass system.
- 11) Explain the difference between dampening and damping.