Physics Objectives

Introduction

1) State Mr. R's policy on extra credit, retests, missing lab reports, quizzes,

2) Adhere to Mr. R's lab write Format.

• Labs will be written in class
• Due date - same day as lab (unless otherwise stated)
• Written in Composition book
• Purpose - given by Mr. R
• Procedure - keep it simple
• Data and Analysis
• Conclusion

2) Name one fact about Mr. Rogers.

3) State how one can contact Mr. R.

• E-Mail: tkrogers@home.com
• Web Page: http://www.intuitor.com

4) State one good reason for studying physics.

• Best mathematical models of all sciences
• Major employment opportunities - best of the sciences
• Basis of modern technology
• Profound effect on culture and daily life
• A great source of fun and relaxation

5) Given distance and time calculate average speed.

chapt 2

Measurements

6) By looking at a graph of distance vs time state whether an object is increasing, decreasing or maintaining constant speed.

7) Describe the relationship between slope of the distance vs time graph and speed.

8) State the physical quantity and unit for the fundamental units in table 2-1 p. 21.

9) State a derived unit and give an example.

10) Correctly use the prefixes giga, mega, kilo, centi, milli.

11) State how many cubic centimeters are in a cubic meter.

12) State how many milliliters are in a cubic centimeter.

13)State the difference between force and weight.

Homework: Questions 4,6,7 p .24 Problems: 5, 7 p.25

14) State the difference between accuracy and precision.

15) Correctly identify the accuracy and precision levels given drawings of targets.

16) Given a number state the correct number of significant figures it contains.

17) State the difference between extrapolation and interpolation and tell which one is more likely to be the most inaccurate.

18) Change decimal numbers to scientific notation and scientific notation to decimal numbers.

19) Add 2 numbers written in scientific notation.

20) Correctly apply the terms directly and inversely proportional.

21) Describe the difference between vector and scalar quantities.

Homework: Questions 1,3,5,6 p .37 Problems: 1,2,5 p.37-8

Kinematics

1) Define kinematics and state why it must always have a frame of reference.

2) State the difference between average and instantaneous as applied to kinematics.

3) Give an example of a device which measures instantaneous speed.

4) State how the instantaneous speed at a particular time can be found on a graph of distance vs time.

5) State the difference between distance and displacement.

6) State the difference between velocity and speed.

8) State the meaning of the sign on a vector.

9) Calculate average velocities in one dimension.

10) Add velocity vectors in one dimension.

Homework: Problems: 1-4 p.47-8

11) Define acceleration.

12) State 2 ways of causing a non zero acceleration.

13) Calculate average acceleration.

14) For constant acceleration, draw the a vs t, v vs t, and x vs t curves.

15) By looking at the direction of the velocity and acceleration vectors, state whether an object is slowing down or speeding up.

16) Solve constant acceleration problems in one dimension using the 3 equations given on page 54.

• Free falling objects - vertical problems
• Slowing down or speeding up - horizontal problems

Homework: Questions 1-6 p. 55

17) Describe the conditions which create free falling object. (Note: we will neglect air resistance.)

18) State the rate of acceleration all free falling bodies have on planet Earth.

19) State the direction of acceleration of free falling objects and tell why it is always a constant.

Homework: Problems 1, 3, 5, 7 p. 55-56

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Test: Oct. 2, 2000

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Chapter 3

Newton's Laws

1) Define force.

2) Explain inertia and its relationship to mass.

3) Solve problems with Newton's 1st law (Law of Inertia, p.56).

Home work: Question 1-3, p.62

4) Explain Newton's second law (Law of Acceleration, p. 58).

• F = ma
• Force is directly proportional to acceleration

5) State Newton's 3rd law (Law of Interaction, p. 61)in 3 ways.

• Book p.61
• Can't touch without being touched
• Forces always appear in pairs acting in opposite directions on 2 different objects.

6) Solve problems using Newton's 3rd law.

• Weight force, normal force
• Forces of gravity

7) Draw free body diagrams.

• Shows only forces acting on the object from the outside world
• Doesn't show internal forces.
• Doesn't show forces the object creates on other objects.

8) Given the mass calculate the weight.

• Weight = mg

9) Solve problems using F = ma.

Homework: Questions 10 - 13, Prob 1 - 3 p.63.

10) Combine kinematic equations with F=ma to calculate velocities and distances.

Homework: Prob 5, 7 p.63.

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TEST Friday Oct 27, 2000

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Chapter 3, page 64

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

1) Define gravity force.

• The force of attraction between 2 or more masses

2) State how objects are modeled with respect to gravity.

• All mass is considered located at the center of mass
• Objects are point sources of gravity

3) State how the distance between 2 planets is measured.

• From the center of mass of one planet to the center of mass of the other.

4) Given a large and small planet with a gravitational attraction force between them, explain why the force on the large planet is exactly the same as the force on the small planet.

• They are action reaction pairs (Newton's 3rd Law)

5) Explain the effect on gravity force of multiplying the mass of one of 2 planets by a factor.

• The force is also multiplied by the factor
• Gravity force is directly proportional to mass

6) Use the inverse square law to explain the effect on gravity force of multiplying the distance between 2 planets by a factor.

• The force is multiplied by 1/factor/factor
• Gravity force is inversely proportional to the square of distance.

Homework: Questions 1, 3, 6, 7; Read pages 64 - 68

Gravity Warm Up Questions - Set 1

Name ________________ Date ____________

1) Draw 2 planets. Assume one has 3 times as much mass as the other. Indicate the distance between them according to Newton's Law of Gravity (Objective 3).

2) Which of the 2 planets has the highest gravity force acting on it?

3) If the mass of the large planet is multiplied by a factor of 2 what will happen to the gravitational attraction force acting on each planet?

4) If the mass of the small planet is multiplied by a factor of 2 what will happen to the gravitational attraction force acting on each planet?

5) If the distance between the 2 planets is multiplied by a factor of 2 what happens to the gravitational attraction force on each planet?

6) If the distance between the 2 planets is multiplied by a factor of 1/2 what happens to the gravitational attraction force on each planet?

Gravity Warm Up Questions - Set 2

Name ________________ Date ____________

Given: Two planets are separated by a distance = r. One planet has a mass which is twice as large as the other. The gravity force between them is F.

7) Find the new value of gravity force if the mass of one planet is multiplied by a factor of 2.

8) Does it make any difference which planet has its mass increased?

9) Find the new value of gravity force if the mass of both planets are multiplied by a factor of 2.

10) Find the new value of gravity force if the distance between them is cut in half.

11) Find the new value of gravity force if the mass of one planet is multiplied by a factor of 2 and the distance between them is cut in half.

Chapter 4

12) Calculate the net force or sum of forces in one dimension.

• Vectors in one dimension add algebraically.

13) Given a force, calculate its x and y components.

Ax = A cos (theta)
Ay = A sin (theta)

14) Given x and y components find the direction and magnitude of the force vector.

15) Given a combination of several x and y vectors find the resultant.

• Draw the x,y axis and show the vectors
• Sum the y-components
• Sum the x-components
• Use the sum of x-components and sum of y-components to calculate the resultants magnitude.
• Calculate the resultant's angle

16) Explain why the methods for adding displacements, velocities, or accelerations are identical to adding forces.

17) When 2 vectors are added, explain the angle between them which gives the greatest magnitude and the smallest magnitude for the resultant.

Calculating Forces Warm Up Questions - Set 1

Name ________________ Date ____________

Given: Two planets are separated by a distance = r. The gravity force between them is F.

12) Find the new value of gravity force if the mass of one planet is multiplied by a factor of 2 and the other planet's mass is multiplied by a factor of 3.

13) Find the new value of gravity force if the distance between planets is tripled.

14) Find the new value of gravity force if the mass of one planet is multiplied by a factor of 4 and the distance between them is doubled.

15) Find the net force on a car if it's pushed forward by a 200 N force and has a friction of 50 N.

16) A rocket has a mass = 100 kg. It is moved upward with a force of 2000 N and has an air resistance force of 200 N. Find the net force.

New Stuff - Draw diagrams for each of the following:

17) A box has an x-dimension force of 40 N and a y-dimension force of 30 N. What is the magnitude of the resultant force? What angle does the resultant make with respect to the x-axis?

18) An object has a force of 20 N in the negative y-dimension and a force of 40 N in the negative x-dimension. What is the magnitude of the resultant force? What angle does the resultant make with respect to the x-axis?

19) An object has a force of 30 N in the positive y-dimension and a force of 70 N in the negative x-dimension. What is the magnitude of the resultant force? What angle does the resultant force make with the x-axis?

20) A 100 N force makes an angle of 30 degrees with the x-axis. Find the vector's x and y-components.

Calculating Forces Warm Up Questions - Set 2

Name ________________ Date ____________

Given: Two planets are separated by a distance = r. The gravity force between them is F.

21) Find the new value of gravity force if the mass of one planet is multiplied by a factor of 1/4 and the other planet's mass is multiplied by a factor of 2 and the distance between the planets is reduced to 1/3 its original size.

22) When we add forces in the same dimension why do we say that we are taking the algebraic sum of the forces?

23) When we add vectors in different dimensions why do we call the final answer the resultant instead of the sum of the vectors? Why do we have to calculate an angle and make a drawing of the resultant to completely describe the it?

24) Can displacement, velocity, and acceleration vectors be added in the same manner as force vectors?

25)Add an x-dimension force of - 40 N to a y-dimension force of +40 N. Why is the resultant not zero?

26) A 500 m/s velocity makes an angle of 60 degrees with the x-axis. Find the vector's x and y-components.

27) Jane walks 20 m North and 30 m South. Find her total displacement.

27) A rocket has a mass = 100 kg. It is moved upward with a force of 2000 N. The rocket is pushed sideways by a wind force of 400 N. Find the resultant force.

28) A 200 N force is added to a 400 N force. What is the smallest and largest possible magnitudes for the resultant?

20) A 100 N force makes an angle of 30 degrees with the x-axis. Find the vector's x and y-components.

Chapt 4 page 79

Friction

1) Define friction.

2) State the friction force on a object before it slides.

3) Describe and calculate starting friction.

• No sliding between surfaces
• Calculates a critical value

4) Describe and calculate sliding friction.

• Sliding between surfaces
• Calculates a constant value

5) State which type of friction tends to be lower.

6) State the relationship between normal force and friction.

7) State the relationship between contact area and friction.

Homework: p. 84, questions 1, 3, 4, 5, 6

8) State the force which moves a car.

9) Calculate the maximum acceleration of a car given the coefficient of friction.

10) Solve F=ma problems involving friction.

• Max Acceleration of cars
• Acceleration when sliding (hockey puck)
• Max slope before sliding occurs

11) State who has the advantage in a tug of war.

Homework: pages 84-85, Questions 7, 9; prob. 2, 4, 11

Calculating Friction Warm Up Questions - Set 1

Name ________________ Date ____________

Review

1) Change 2300 into scientific notation.

2) Convert 42 meters into centimeters.

3) Bob drives his car around a circular track 2 times in 30 seconds. The circumference of the track is 300 meters. Find Bob's average speed and average velocity.

New Stuff

1) Find the starting friction for a 100 kg box on a surface with a starting COF = .5.

2) Find the net force for a 100 kg box on a surface with a sliding COF = .25. Assume the box is pulled by a force = 600 N.

3) Find the critical angle where sliding occurs with a COF = .5. Does the mass of the box matter?

4) Will a box slide if it is on a ramp with and angle of 20 degrees and the same friction conditions as in the previous problem?

Calculating Friction Warm Up Questions - Set 2

Name ________________ Date ____________

Review

1) Which of the following are vectors? ____mass, ____velocity, ____displacement, ____speed, ____distance

2) If some one asks you how fast you are going, what would you need to know before you could answer?

New Stuff

1) Draw a free body diagram of both teams in a tug of war.

2) Which team has the advantage in a tug of war, the team witht the highest friction force or the team which pulls the hardest?

3) What is the maximum accelerwation a car can have if the COF = .5. Express the number both in g's and in m/s/s.

4) What is the maximum angle a ramp can have before a box slides? Assume the COF = .6.

Projectile Motion

1) Define the term projectile and trajectory. Draw a free body diagram of a projectile and give examples.

2) State the type of path a projectile follows and describe its shape.

3) State the magnitude and direction of acceleration at any point in the path and the cause of the acceleration.

4) State the magnitude of acceleration in the x or horizontal direction and the vertical or downward direction.

5) State the maximum and minimum values of acceleration for a projectile on planet Earth.

6) State the difference between the x and y dimension velocities and explain the reason why they the velocity behaves differently in the 2 different dimensions.

7) Solve for velocities in projectile motion problems by using symmetry.

8) When a projectile is launched at angle theta with respect to the horizontal, find the x dimension's velocity.

9) State the relationship between the x and y velocities for projectile motion.

10) Calculate the range and time of fall for a bomb problem.

Homework: Questions group A 1 - 3 page 100, Problem group A 1 page 100.

10) State the launch angle which produces the maximum range for a projectile.

11) State the relationship of the ranges of identical projectiles launched at complementary launch angles with the same velocities.

Projectile Motion Warm Up Questions - Set 1

Name ________________ Date ____________

1) Jane hits a baseball. At the top of its flight, what is the ball's y-velocity? What is the ball's acceleration?

2) Captain Smith fires a cannon with an innital velocity of 400 m/s. What is it's maximum acceleration? What is its minimum acceleration? What is the cannon ball's velocity just before it hits?

3) The cannon in question 2 makes an angle of 60 degrees with the horizon. What is the cannon ball's velocity in the x-dimension at the top of its path? What is its x-velocity at the end of the path? What is the cannon ball's x-dimension acceleration?

Projectile Motion Warm Up Questions - Set 2

Name ________________ Date ____________

1) An aircraft flying at 200 m/s drops a bomb. The aircraft is 100 meters off the ground when the bomb falls. How far does the bomb travel before it hits?

2) Jackie Chan runs at a velocity of 10 m/s in the horizontal direction. He runs off the edge of the building and flies across a 5 meter gap before landing on the top of the next building. How much lower does the second building have to be if Jackie successfully makes the jump?

3) If Samo makes the same jump at the same velocity will he land in the same place?

4) A cannon is fired at an angle of 30 degrees with respect to the horizon. The cannon ball leaves the cannon with a velocity of 400 m/s.

a) What is the x-velocity of the cannon ball at the top of its trajectory?
b) What is the y-velocity at the top of the trajectory?
c) What is the acceleration at the top of the trajectory?
d) What is the maximum acceleration along the trajectory?
e) What is the magnitude of the velocity just before the cannon ball hits?
f) What other angle could be used to fire the cannon and still hit in the same spot?

Circular Motion

1) Describe the conditions of velocity, acceleration and force needed for circular motion.

• Accel points toward center
• Force points toward center
• Tangential Vel perpendicular to force and accel

2) Describe the direction an object in circular motion travels if the centripetal force is turned off.

3) Solve problems in which friction provides the required centripetal motion (cars driving around curves or circular race tracks).

• Find Amax in terms of COF and g.
• Find Vmax in terms of r, COF and g.

4) Solve artificial gravity problems.

• Find the required Vt in terms of r and g.
• Find the required RPM in terms of r and Vt.

5) State the centripetal force on an object in orbit.

Homework: Questions 7 & 8 p. 100. Prob 6 page 101

6) State the cause of apparent weightlessness in an orbiting object.

7) State why the gravity force on an orbiting object is not zero.

8) State the force which causes our perception of weight.

9) Describe the reason why a person riding a roller coaster with a vertical loop feels weightless at the top and twice as heavy at the bottom (assume critical velocity).

Circular Motion Questions - Set 1

Name ________________ Date ____________

1) A car drives around circular track with a radius of 100 meters at a constant speed of 20 m/s. Find the following:

a) The Tangential velocity.

b) The magnitude of centripetal acceleration.

c) The magnitude of centripetal force.

d) What direction does the centripetal force and acceleration point?

2) Maria swings a bucket of water around in a horizontal circle. none of the water spills out of the bucket. Assume that the water acts like a single object and draw a freebody diagram of the bucket. Lable all the forces. NOTE: Centripetal force does not appear on a free body diagram. What type of force makes the water go in a circular path?

3) Albert drives his car at constant speed down a dip in the road with a radius of 100 meters. Draw a diagram of the car and indicate the direction of acceleration and net force. What is the net force also called. Where does it come from?

4) Assume a space station with artificial gravity to simulate Earth conditions.

a) How is the artificial gravity produced?

b) What is the magnitude and direction of the centripetal acceleration?

c) Draw a free body diagram of a person standing in the space station. What force gives the illusion of gravity?

d) Artificial gravity in a space station is directly proportional to the radius of the station. Why would it be undesirable to have a station with a small radius?

Chapter 5 Pages 108-113

Simple Harmonic Motion

1) State 4 key properties of simple harmonic motion.

• motion is back and forth through an equilibrium position.
• periodic motion
• restoring force and acceleration increase as the object moves away from the equilibrium point.
• restoring force and acceleration always point toward the equilibrium point

2) For harmonic motion define:

• equilibrium point
• frequency
• period

3) State the location of max and min forces and velocities for a mass moving at the end of a vibrating spring.

4) Give two examples of simple harmonic motion.

5) State an example of  an object which has periodic motion but not simple harmonic motion.

6) Given the length of a pendulum, calculate its period and frequency.

7) State the effects of mass on the frequency of  a pendulum.

8) Understand the term natural frequency.

9) State what causes resonance and why it can be a problem.

Homework: Questions 1-6 and Problems 1-3, page 113

Simple Harmonic Motion Questions - Set 1

Name ________________ Date ____________

1) A pendulum swings 120 cycles in 60 seconds. What is the frequency of the pendulum?

2) The period of a pendulum is 2 seconds. What is the frequency of the pendulum/

3) A pendulum is .25 meters long and has a mass on one end of 30 grams. What is the natural frequency of the pendulum?

4) A spring and mass system goes through 20 cycles in 4 seconds. What is the frequency of the system.

5) a force is applied in the same direction as the restoring force for a spring and mass system. The frequency of the force matches the natural frequency of the mass and spring system. Describe what happens with a single word.

6) How can a child make a swing work?

7) What type of motion do the following objects have (simple harmonic or periodic)?

A swing

A planet rotating around the sun

A propeller on an airplane

A pogo stick

8) Why is resonance a problem for engineers?

9) The mass of a pendulum is doubled. What effect does this have on its frequency?

10)The length of a pendulum is increased. How does this affect its frequency?

11) The frequency of a pendulum is 5 hz. What is its period?

12) Draw both a pendulum and spring and mass system label the following on both.

Equilibrium position

Max and min acceleration

Max and min restoring force

Max and min velocity

13) What is the net force on a pendulum's mass at the equilibrium position?

Chapter 6

Chapt. 6 p. 115

Work and

Mechanical Energy

1) Define mechanical energy.

• Position
• Movement

2) Define work 2 ways.

• In words
• Mathematically

3) State whether work and mechanical energy are vectors or scalars.

4) State 2 requirements for work to be done by a force.

• Motion
• Non-zero force component in same dimension as motion

5) Calculate the net work done by a constant force.

6) Using the direction of motion and the direction of force, state whether kinetic energy is decreasing or increasing.

7) Calculate the net work done by a variable force section 6.2 p.117).

8)

9)

10)

Homework: questions