`Mr. Rogers' IB Design Technology Objectives
Syllabus 1st Quarter 2nd Quarter 3rd Quarter 4th Quarter
Design Project Materials Product Development Product Design

Topic 5 Product Development

IB Design Technology Standards: Items directly related to the standards are shown in blue

Unit Plan Practice Test Study Guide


Essential Question: How are raw materials shaped into finished products?

Manufacturing Techniques

Relevance: If you are involved in an entrepreneurial venture involving the manufacture or marketing of a product, to be successful, you will have to understand how to select an appropriate manufacturing technique.


  1. Be able to fill in and discuss the information in the following table:

Technique Description Typical Materials Pros Cons
Molding A powder, liquid, or malleable solid is forced under pressure to take the shape of a mold ceramics, metal, plastic, food High speed production of complex parts. Expensive equipment, especially molds. Less precision.  May need to remove flashing
casting A liquid or slurry is poured into a mold. ceramics, metal, plastic, food, concrete Molds can be fabricated from soft, easily worked materials  then used to cast complex shapes in harder more durable materials. Large set up time. Mold may not be reusable.

Assessment -- Materials Vocabulary

Specifications: Create the above table in Excel and input the missing information using the internet and the glossary in the IB Design Tech syllabus.

Deliverable: Place the completed Excel file in the IB Design Technology folder of your student drive.

Work Group: individuals.




Essential Question: How are one-of-a-kind products made and why in the past were all products one-of-a-kind?
Craft Production
Relevance: If you want to be an artist you will invariably be involved with craft production.
Your understanding of it along with your talent will determine whether or not you can make a living as an artist.
  1. Define craft production

  • small scale

  • multiple items

  • manual skills

  1. Define one-off production

  • goal is eventual large scale production

  • individual item or prototype

  • often craft produced

  1. Describe why most products were manufactured by craft techniques prior to the Industrial Revolution.

  • skills - the skills and knowledge required to remain employed typically changed very little over time as compared to modern times. For example: blacksmith vs. computer programmer.

  • sources of materials - highly limited, hence, individuals could easily specialize in working with a specific material such as wood, leather, iron (blacksmith)

  • sources of energy - human or animal power

  • sales and distribution - distribution was highly limited by slow transportation: horse drawn wagons over dirt roads. Demand for goods was relatively low and could be met with the limited output of a few skilled workers.

  • relationship of craftsman or designer with client or customer - likely to live nearby and be acquaintances, relatives, or friends


  1. Discuss the importance of craft production for developed and developing countries.

  • economic development - Craft production requires very little economic development to support it.

  • infrastructure and market needs - developing countries lack the infrastructure for large scale distribution of goods. Small scale distribution limits the size of markets. Craft production may be the only viable way to earn the money needed for making the infrastructure improvements required for development.

  • the rise of the “master craftsman” in industrialized countries - a wealthy industrialized country can support “master craftsman” with highly specialized skills related to the arts. It requires a certain number of “master craftsman” with highly specialized industrial skill such as tool and die makers ( a type of machinist that makes the tools used in automation. This type of job will not exist in a developing country.


Assessment -- Introduction to CAD

Specifications: Define all vocabulary terms highlighted in yellow for objectives 1- 33

Deliverable: Place Word document with completed list in the IB Design Tech folder on your student drive.

Work Group: individuals.


Essential Question: Does mechanization eliminate jobs?


  1. Define mechanization:

  • volume production process

  • done with machines controlled by humans.

  1. Describe how the availability of new sources of power in the Industrial Revolution led to the introduction of mechanization.

  • water - the energy source is actually solar energy stored in the water as gravitational potential energy. Energy from the sun evaporates water which eventually falls as rain. The rain collects behind a dam and then is allowed to flow to a lower level, driving a water wheel or turbine in the process. Water is a working fluid. It is not by itself a source of energy.

  • steam - the energy source is actually coal. Steam is a working fluid. It is not by itself a source of energy

  1. Define assembly-line production.

  2. Explain the relevance of assembly-line production to mechanization.

  • economics: The cost per unit greatly declines for two reasons, economies of scale and reduction of time related expenses such as labor, rent, and working capital.

  • product design: parts must be standardized interchangeable, and designed for ease of assembly.

  • effect on the workforce: Tends to lower the required worker skills. Can be extremely tedious. Typically does not make use of worker's thinking abilities.

  • consumer choice: Reduces costs but also reduces the variety of available choices.


  1. Outline two advantages and two disadvantages of mechanizing a production process.

Advantages Disadvantages
Low cost per unit Tedious repetitive jobs for most workers
High and uniform quality Less variety in consumer choices
Standardized parts for maintenance and repair Capital intensive
Requires less worker training and skill Difficult and expensive to alter production process


  1. Define batch production and mass production for a mechanized production system..

  Batch Production Mass Production
Description All the steps in the process must be completed before the process can be repeated. The process produces product in discrete units or batches with significant time lags between batches. Each step in the production process is continuously repeated. The process continuously produces product.
Examples growing crops, wine and beer production, production of specialty chemicals and medications. automobiles, injection molding of parts, many types of chemical processes such as distillation.
Production rate Best for limited production Best for large scale production
market needs Easy to change with quickly changing market Difficult for traditional mass production to change with quickly changing market
consumer choice Generally easier to increase the number of choices  
product differentiation Easy Difficult for traditional mass production
economies of scale Depends on production rate Best choice for economy of scale
  1. Compare batch production and mass production in a mechanized production system.

  • market needs

  • consumer choice

  • product differentiation

  • economies of scale


Assessment -- Introduction to CAD

Specifications: Do SolidWorks Tutorial exercises 1-3

Deliverable: Show each completed exercise to the teacher before proceeding to the next one

Work Group: individuals.



Essential Question: Does mechanization eliminate jobs?


  1. Define automation. Relevance: Worldwide, the number of manufacturing jobs are in decline thanks to automation, but it is mostly the less desirable manual labor jobs that are disappearing. Employees who understand and know how to use concepts like JIT, CAM, CNC, and mass customization are going to be in great demand.

  • volume production process

  • done with machines controlled by computers or electronic/mechanical controllers.

  • Humans act in design, supervisory, quality control, or maintenance roles.

  1. Describe how the development of computer and information technology in the “technological revolution” led to the introduction of automation.

  2. Define computer-aided manufacture (CAM) and computer numerical control (CNC).

  3. Explain how CAD, CAM and CNC contribute to an automated production system.

  4. Define just-in-time (JIT) and just-incase (JIC).

  5. Explain the advantages of JIT and JIC to manufacturing.

  6. Define mass customization.

  7. Outline how mass customization is changing the relationship between the manufacturer and the consumer. Using sophisticated computer controlled robotics, individual features of a product such as color can easily be customized for individual customers.

  8. Discuss the impact of automation on working conditions.

  • improved worker health and safety--less exposure to dangerous chemicals or conditions

  • challenging technician level work--work less physical, more mental

  • higher pay--lower labor cost per unit of production

  1. Outline how automation has improved the type and range of products available to consumers.

Assessment -- Introduction to CAD

Specifications: Do SolidWorks Tutorial exercises 5-7

Deliverable: Show each completed exercise to the teacher before proceeding to the next one

Work Group: individuals.



Essential Question: Does mechanization eliminate jobs?

Economic considerations

  1. Define:

fixed costs--costs do not change with the level of production.

variable costs--costs that vary with output,

Relevance: Control of fixed and variable costs is essential for making a profit in today's business environment.

  1. List the costs that contribute to the final cost of a product. (Note, in general the scale of production, size, weight, and complexity of the product are major factors in its cost.)

Fixed costs (These increase with greater mechanization and automation.)

  • salaries

  • overhead--rent, utilities, property taxes

  • capital costs--machinery

  • R&D

Variable costs (These tend to be higher for craft production.)

  • labor--skill level

  • raw materials

  • inventories

  • cost of sales--marketing, advertising, distribution (shipping)

  • profits and taxes.



Essential Question: Does clean technology eliminate jobs?

Clean Manufacturing

Relevance: Clean manufacturing helps prevent pollution and lowers total long term the cost of goods.

  1. Explain why the introduction of mass production increased damage to the natural environment.

  • not an issue in the 18th and 19th centuries--long term effects were unknown, industrial and economic growth were given higher priorities

  • increased energy use--greater C02 emission, NOx, SOx, heavy metals, especially for coal burning.

  • greater use of raw materials--strip mining (coal and metals), deforestation

  • created disposal problems

  • the long term cost of goods was typically not reflected in their price.

  1. Outline the reasons for cleaning up manufacturing.

  2. Outline that an initial response to reducing emission of pollutants is adding clean-up technologies to the end of the manufacturing process (“endof-pipe” approach).

  • catalytic converters--automobile exhaust clean up

  • scrubbers--remove sulfur compounds from the exhaust of coal burning power plants

  • dust filters

  • electrostatic precipitators--removes smoke and other sources of particulate pollution from exhaust streams

  • waste ponds--used for treating raw sewage, in chemical plants all rain water runoff from the process areas drains into treatment ponds

  1. State that the legislation can be policed by monitoring through the collection of quantitative data. The data is often collected by the manufactures themselves, which to some extent is a conflict of interest. However, the penalties for lying are very high and include large fines, felony convictions with significant prison time, and the loss of customer good will with a subsequent loss of sales.

  2. Explain that strategies for cleaning up manufacturing are mainly reactive, and that more radical approaches require a rethink of the whole system and may result in significant product and/or process modification or radically new technologies.

  3. Explain that targets for reducing pollution and waste from industry are agreed internationally, but not all industrial nations agree to the targets. Countries with lax pollution standards can lower manufacturing costs and attract more industry, putting manufactures in more responsible countries out of work. International agreements can help prevent this from happening by leveling the playing field.

Summative Assessment: Test Objectives 1-35


Note: Items highlighted in this color are directly related to the 2009 IB Syllabus which is the set of standards for the class. In many cases the wording has been altered, but every attempt has been made to preserve the meaning. These objective, however, should not be considered a substitute for the actual syllabus.

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